Today in this article, you will learn about computers that what is a computer, how does computer works, what are the types of computers, what are the names of computer parts and what are the merits and demerits of computers? Therefore, you should read this article thoroughly so that you can get better information about the basic basics of computers in one place.
So let’s get complete information about computers and first of all know what is a computer
What is Computer / What is a Definition of a Computer?
The word Computer is derived from the word Compute in Latin which means to calculate. Therefore, the computer is also known as a calculator in Hindi. Early computers were made only for mathematical operations, but necessary changes took place in the course of time and the present form of computer is in front of us today.
If the computer is defined in a defined way it means –
“A computer is an automated electronic machine that generates meaningful information by quickly and accurately processing data under the control of the programs we specify.”
What is the full form of Computer?
Let us now know the term Computer in detail: –
Who invented the computer?
Every computer we see today is a result of the process of sustainable development. That is, the early computers were not like today, computers have evolved from generation to generation.
But to say directly, Charles Babbage is called the father of computer, he first invented a mechanical computer in 1937, which was named Analytical Engine.
How Many Types of Computer?
Types of computers based on technology:
On the basis of technology, computers are divided into three parts –
- Digital Computer
- Analog computer
- Hybrid computer
What is a digital computer?
Digital computers accept binary numbers (0 and 1) as information. That is, it accepts information in the form of numbers and they are operated by some software.
In this, large numbers data can be stored and can be obtained immediately as needed.
Whenever we talk about computers, we refer to the digital computer itself. Nowadays all the types of computers we see around us are all forms of digital computers, whether it is your mobile phone or laptop, desktop or digital watch, these are all forms of digital computers.
2 . What is an analog computer?
Analog computers are a kind of mechanical computer that do not require any kind of software. They accept information in physical form such as temperature or air pressure etc.
Such computers are most commonly used in the fields of geology, oceanography, engineering.
Thus air pressure measuring instruments such as a barometer or thermometer – thermometer, a stabilizer used to measure voltage, etc. are examples of analog computers.
3 . What is a Hybrid Computer?
Hybrid computers incorporate both digital and analog properties. Hybrid computers are capable of measurement similar to analog computers, which are displayed by changing the digits in the same way as digital computers.
Types of computers based on capacity and capability:
On the basis of capacity and capability, computers are divided into four categories – Microcomputer, Minicomputer, Mainframe and Supercomputer.
What is a microcomputer?
Whatever laptop or desktop or Smart Phone computer is in your house, it is all a microcomputer (type of personal computer). Microcomputers are single users, which only one person can use at a time.
These computers are generally designed for household or office work only, which do not require much processing power.
Microcomputers are also called personal computers because nowadays everyone uses them for their personal work as well.
What is minicomputer?
The efficiency of a mini-computer is higher than that of a microcomputer. Many people can work on these simultaneously. Such computers are beneficial for most banks, small companies, or offices.
What is a Mainframe Computer?
Mainframe computers are faster and significantly larger in size than minicomputers. In this, hundreds of employees can work simultaneously. Mainframe computers are installed in one place and many terminals are connected to it.
At these terminals, many users work together and are connected to the mainframe computer. Many big companies, banks, institutions, etc. use these computers to earn their work.
What is a super computer?
The size and data storage capacity and processing speed of super computers are much higher than all other types of computers. Supercomputers can execute more than 9 billion instructions in one second.
These computers are used in almost all fields such as in research, astronomy, projecting satellites, calculating other planets and measuring distances, weather forecasting, and for higher-level tasks etc.
Name of different parts of computer / parts of computer:
The computer is mainly composed of four parts – CPU, Key board, Monitor, Mouse. All these together are called a computer system. Apart from all these, you can add extra device in the computer like – printer, speaker, microphone, joystick, CD, pen drive, etc.
What is CPU?
The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the most important part of a computer. Without it, the computer cannot function. It is also called the brain of computer. The computation related tasks are done by the CPU itself. It is through this that control is established on the computer.
It consists of processor, hard disk, CD drive and mother board etc. All these are connected by cables.
The CPU is divided into three parts: –
- ALU (Arihtmatic Logical Unit)
- MU (Memory Unit)
- CU (Control Unit)
(1) ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit):
ALU is also called arithmetic and logical unit in Hindi. In the computer, all mathematical functions such as addition, rest, multiplication, division and additionally all logical functions such as which number is smaller or greater than the rest of the numbers, etc. are done by this unit. Apart from this, the functions of matching data, selecting numbers and matching etc. are also done by this.
(2) CU (Control Unit):
The control unit is the core part of the CPU. It controls the input and output of the computer. The processing and output of all the commands given in the computer are directed by this control unit. That is, we can say that the Control Unit is the Chief Commander of the entire computer system and as long as the computer is on, all its units work under the direction of the control unit.
(3) MU (Memory Unit):
The part of the computer that functions to store data is called a memory unit. The memory unit has two parts – Primary Memory and Secondary Memory.
What is Primary Memory ?
Primary memory (also called temporary memory) is the function of loading the operating system of a computer and running all programs. Primary memory is divided into two parts – RAM and ROM.
What is Secondary Memory?
Secondary memory, also known as permanent memory. Data can be stored permanently in it so that that data can be used again later. Hard Disk, USB Flash Drive, CD ROM etc. are the form of secondary storage.
What is a Key Board?
It is an input device from which all information going to the computer enters the CPU. Key – All the letters and numbers are written on the buttons on the board. The key board appears just like an electronic type writer.
Many keys (Keys) are created on the keyboard: eg – Numeric keys, Alphabet keys, Spacebar keys, Enter keys, Enter keys, Function keys. Keys), Arrow keys etc.
What is a monitor?
The monitor looks like a television screen. This is the output device. Whatever work you are doing, you can see it on the monitor. There are different types of monitors like CRT Monitor, LCD Monitor, LED Monitor etc.
What is a mouse?
It is a pointing device. This moves the pointer back and forth across the screen. When we move, the pointer or cursor also starts moving in the same direction on the monitor. We work by placing the mouse on the mouse pad. It has three buttons – Left, Middle, Right.
What are the types of Computer Device?
The Computer Device is mainly divided into two parts – Input Unit and Output Unit.
(1) What is Input Unit?
The computer accepts programs and data to solve any problem. Devices for entering information, programs, and data into a computer are called input units. Some of the major input devices are keyboards, mouse, floppy disks, scanners, etc.
(2) What is Output Unit?
The output unit is a means of communication between man and machine just like an input unit. They are used to write computer-derived findings and present those findings in human language. There are some major output devices, such as: monitor, printer, speaker etc.
What is Data?
Whatever is fed by the user from the key-board into the computer is called data. The undefined groups are called data. After this, the computer processes that data and converts it into meaningful information.
If it is understood as easy words, then data is fed into the computer as Input and in the form of Output, we get information.
Now let’s talk about the combination of both the hardware and the software of the computer system, it is called the computer system.
What is Hardware called?
All the physical parts connected to the computer, which can be anywhere inside or outside the computer and which we can see or touch, are called hardware. Such as: – Keyboard, Mouse, Printer, Scanner, CPU, IC etc.
What is software?
The resources used to control the various hardware devices of a computer are called software. Software cannot be touched, seeing it can be acted upon.
What are the merits and demerits of computers?
Characteristics of Computer System:
1. Speed :
The biggest feature of a computer is its fast speed. And anyway, the computer itself has been made so that they can complete complex tasks in very short time (nano seconds).
2. Storage Capacity :
The computer has a memory unit (hard disk) in which data and information are stored and kept, which can be used whenever needed.
We can keep this data or information in the computer as long as we want and we can delete it whenever we want. The more the computer’s storage capacity, the more data can be stored in it.
3. Accuracy :
The greatest feature of a computer is that the computer works with 100% accuracy. Now perhaps you will say that sometimes even if the computer makes a mistake, then your thinking is correct, but it is only possible that if the computer is given a wrong command or if there is a bug in its programming itself.
Apart from this, the computer will never give you the wrong result because the computer works on the Garbage in garbage out principle. That is, tit for tat.
4. Automation :
It is a great feature of the computer that once it is given the command, then it will continue to work continuously until the command to stop it is given.
5. Versatility :
A computer is a machine that is being used in all areas nowadays. A special program is required to perform a particular task.
 Computer limitations:
- Computer can’t think like a human
- The computer has a fixed speed and storage limit.
- The computer itself cannot make a decision, for this it needs human suggestions.
Friends, computer technology has become very advanced today and even today computers are constantly changing. As technology changes, computers will become more powerful, fast and intelligent than before.
So friends, hope that by this article you will have got to know a lot about computers, what is a computer, how does a computer work, how many types of computers are there.
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